Last Modified: 1:41pm 19/03/2021

Causes of Hyperglycaemia

Pause and find a cause, ensure good hydration, address constipation’

Reduced physical activity

  • Prolonged bedrest/reduced physical activity.
  • Recovery from surgery.

Acute Catabolic state

  • New diagnosis of diabetes.
  • Diabetes Emergency State: Diabetic KetoAcidosis (DKA) or Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS: Old name HONK).
  • Stress of intercurrent illness e.g. Sepsis, Post-Operative case with associated increased stress hormones causing transient increased insulin resistance.
  • Post pancreatic surgery.
  • Alternative pancreatic disease (e.g. pancreatitis).
  • Trauma & Burns.

Drug/Infusion related

  • Glucose lowering medication omitted, delayed or dose suboptimal (e.g. after IV insulin infusion discontinued).
  • Incorrect insulin given (e.g long acting insulin given with meals).
  • Steroid based treatment.
  • Antipsychotic medication.
  • Vasopressor agent use.
  • Retroviral treatments.
  • Thiazide diuretics.

Mechanical cause

  • Insulin device failure (e.g. damaged insulin pen, faulty personal insulin pump (e.g; blocked cannula) or IV infusion pump).
  • Insulin expired or stored in warm environment.
  • Inappropriately low insulin infusion rate on IV infusion, blocked cannula etc).
  • Incorrect insulin injection technique or site (e.g. insulin injected into oedematous or lumpy site, mixed insulin not agitated properly).

Gastrointestinal related cause

  • Recent treatment or rebound high glucose from hypoglycaemia.
  • Increased eating after a period of reduced intake.
  • Indiscretions between meals (e.g. high glucose content snacks, Supplements).
  • Mismatch between meals and medications.
  • Use of high sugar containing dietary supplements.
  • NBM or vomiting.
  • Enteral/parenteral feeding.
  • Wrong food choices.
  • Inconsistent intake.
  • Constipation.

 Endocrine cause

  • Menstruation.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Thyroid disease.