Last Modified: 1:41pm 19/03/2021
Causes of Hyperglycaemia
Pause and find a cause, ensure good hydration, address constipation’
Reduced physical activity
- Prolonged bedrest/reduced physical activity.
- Recovery from surgery.
Acute Catabolic state
- New diagnosis of diabetes.
- Diabetes Emergency State: Diabetic KetoAcidosis (DKA) or Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS: Old name HONK).
- Stress of intercurrent illness e.g. Sepsis, Post-Operative case with associated increased stress hormones causing transient increased insulin resistance.
- Post pancreatic surgery.
- Alternative pancreatic disease (e.g. pancreatitis).
- Trauma & Burns.
- Glucose lowering medication omitted, delayed or dose suboptimal (e.g. after IV insulin infusion discontinued).
- Incorrect insulin given (e.g long acting insulin given with meals).
- Steroid based treatment.
- Antipsychotic medication.
- Vasopressor agent use.
- Retroviral treatments.
- Thiazide diuretics.
- Insulin device failure (e.g. damaged insulin pen, faulty personal insulin pump (e.g; blocked cannula) or IV infusion pump).
- Insulin expired or stored in warm environment.
- Inappropriately low insulin infusion rate on IV infusion, blocked cannula etc).
- Incorrect insulin injection technique or site (e.g. insulin injected into oedematous or lumpy site, mixed insulin not agitated properly).
Gastrointestinal related cause
- Recent treatment or rebound high glucose from hypoglycaemia.
- Increased eating after a period of reduced intake.
- Indiscretions between meals (e.g. high glucose content snacks, Supplements).
- Mismatch between meals and medications.
- Use of high sugar containing dietary supplements.
- NBM or vomiting.
- Enteral/parenteral feeding.
- Wrong food choices.
- Inconsistent intake.
- Thyroid disease.